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Level Qualifying studies
A Systematic review or meta-analysis of human trials
B Human RDBPC trials. ≥ 2 studies and/or 1 study with ≥ 50 subjects
C Human RDBPC trials or RCTs. 1 study < 50 subjects
D Human trials or in-vivo animal trials
G No significant nutrient depletion research was found

Results for Pantoprazole: 4

Evidence Rating Scale

Calcium

Summary: We observed that PPIs might have a negative impact on bone formation in growing rats mainly due to their inhibitory effects on the gastric proton pump, with probable deterioration of calcium absorption and decrease in growth plate thickness.

We observed that PPIs might have a negative impact on bone formation in growing rats mainly due to their inhibitory effects on the gastric proton pump, with probable deterioration of calcium absorption and decrease in growth plate thickness.

Iron

Summary: Pantoprazole therapy for 6 months has benefits for reducing serum ferritin in patients with thalassemia major and intermedia. Pantoprazole addition to iron chelators seems safe.

Pantoprazole therapy for 6 months has benefits for reducing serum ferritin in patients with thalassemia major and intermedia. Pantoprazole addition to iron chelators seems safe.

Magnesium

Summary: PPI use may increase the risk of hypomagnesemia. However, significant heterogeneity among the included studies prevented us from reaching a definitive conclusion. Among patients taking PPIs, the median proportion of patients with hypomagnesemia was 27.1% (range, 11.3-55.2%) across all included studies.

PPI use may increase the risk of hypomagnesemia. However, significant heterogeneity among the included studies prevented us from reaching a definitive conclusion. Among patients taking PPIs, the median proportion of patients with hypomagnesemia was 27.1% (range, 11.3-55.2%) across all included studies.

The cases of PPIH show severe symptoms of magnesium depletion and identification of its causation was only possible through withdrawal of the PPI. Clinical awareness of PPIH is key to avoid putting patients at risk.

Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are commonly used in clinical practice for the prevention and treatment of peptic ulcer, gastritis, esophagitis and gastroesophageal reflux. Hypomagnesemia has recently been recognized as a side effect of PPIs. Low magnesium levels may cause symptoms from several systems, some of which being potentially serious, such as tetany, seizures and arrhythmias. It seems that PPIs affect the gastrointestinal absorption of magnesium. Clinicians should be vigilant in order to timely consider and prevent or reverse hypomagnesemia in patients who take PPIs, especially if they are prone to this electrolyte disorder.

Vitamin B12

Summary: These findings support an association between chronic use of H2RA/PPI by older adults and development of vitamin B(12) deficiency. Additional studies are needed to confirm these findings.

These findings support an association between chronic use of H2RA/PPI by older adults and development of vitamin B(12) deficiency. Additional studies are needed to confirm these findings.

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