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Level Qualifying studies
A Systematic review or meta-analysis of human trials
B Human RDBPC trials. ≥ 2 studies and/or 1 study with ≥ 50 subjects
C Human RDBPC trials or RCTs. 1 study < 50 subjects
D Human trials or in-vivo animal trials
G No significant nutrient depletion research was found

Results for Escitalopram: 1

Evidence Rating Scale

Sodium

Summary: Antidepressant-induced hyponatremia in older adults is fairly common. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, serotonin/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, and mirtazapine were implicated in the majority of the case reports and clinical studies evaluating older adults. Bupropion, trazodone, and tricyclic antidepressants were implicated less often in the same literature.Given its unique mechanism of action, bupropion may be the most appropriate antidepressant for older adults at risk for antidepressant-induced hyponatremia.

Antidepressant-induced hyponatremia in older adults is fairly common. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, serotonin/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, and mirtazapine were implicated in the majority of the case reports and clinical studies evaluating older adults. Bupropion, trazodone, and tricyclic antidepressants were implicated less often in the same literature.Given its unique mechanism of action, bupropion may be the most appropriate antidepressant for older adults at risk for antidepressant-induced hyponatremia.

Practitioners should be on the alert for this potentially life-threatening adverse event, especially in older adults with other risk factors for developing hyponatremia.

Practitioners should be on the alert for this potentially life-threatening adverse event, especially in older adults with other risk factors for developing hyponatremia.

These data suggest that antidepressant treatment is associated with hyponatraemia affecting a subgroup of individuals only. Generalised linear modelling showed that the risk of hyponatraemia increases with increased age, female gender, and particularly the antidepressant agents sertraline and escitalopram. The findings are of clinical significance as they demonstrate that hyponatraemia can occur rapidly with antidepressants, and SSRI/SNRI medications induce more rapid changes. They support the use of electrolyte monitoring early in antidepressant treatment in patients receiving antidepressants.

The findings are of clinical significance as they demonstrate that hyponatraemia can occur rapidly with antidepressants, and SSRI/SNRI medications induce more rapid changes. They support the use of electrolyte monitoring early in antidepressant treatment in patients receiving antidepressants.

These data suggest that antidepressant treatment is associated with hyponatraemia affecting a subgroup of individuals only. Generalised linear modelling showed that the risk of hyponatraemia increases with increased age, female gender, and particularly the antidepressant agents sertraline and escitalopram. The findings are of clinical significance as they demonstrate that hyponatraemia can occur rapidly with antidepressants, and SSRI/SNRI medications induce more rapid changes. They support the use of electrolyte monitoring early in antidepressant treatment in patients receiving antidepressants.

The findings are of clinical significance as they demonstrate that hyponatraemia can occur rapidly with antidepressants, and SSRI/SNRI medications induce more rapid changes. They support the use of electrolyte monitoring early in antidepressant treatment in patients receiving antidepressants.

In elderly patients, the prevalence of hyponatremia as adverse reaction to all types of antidepressants was 9%. Patients with previous hyponatremia, weight <60 kg, and psychosis were at risk. Beside SIADH, the nephrogenic syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis, in which ADH secretion was normal, is postulated as an underlying mechanism. This has consequences for treatment of antidepressant-induced hyponatremia with vasopressin receptor antagonists.

Hyponatremia is a potentially dangerous side effect of antidepressants and is not exclusive to SSRIs. Current evidence suggests a relatively higher risk of hyponatremia with SSRIs and venlafaxine, especially when combined with patient risk factors, warranting clinicians to be aware of this complication. The risks associated with mirtazapine are moderate, supporting this antidepressant as an alternative treatment for patients with (an increased risk of) hyponatremia.

These results indicate that, among patients with MDD, SSRIs treatment may be associated with decreased serum sodium levels, and the elderly patients are at greater risk for hyponatremia. Further prospective studies would help clarify the relative risks of hyponatremia among various antidepressants.

These results indicate that, among patients with MDD, SSRIs treatment may be associated with decreased serum sodium levels, and the elderly patients are at greater risk for hyponatremia. Further prospective studies would help clarify the relative risks of hyponatremia among various antidepressants.

Use of a second-generation antidepressant in routine care by older adults is associated with an approximate 5-fold increase in 30-day risk for hospitalization with hyponatremia compared to nonuse. However, the absolute increase in 30-day incidence is low.

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