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Level Qualifying studies
A Systematic review or meta-analysis of human trials
B Human RDBPC trials. ≥ 2 studies and/or 1 study with ≥ 50 subjects
C Human RDBPC trials or RCTs. 1 study < 50 subjects
D Human trials or in-vivo animal trials
G No significant nutrient depletion research was found

Results for Fluoxetine: 2

Evidence Rating Scale

Melatonin

Summary: Fluoxetine significantly reduced melatonin levels in both groups. There was no significant difference in melatonin secretion between the groups. The effect of fluoxetine differs from tricyclics and fluvoxamine, both of which increase melatonin.

Fluoxetine significantly reduced melatonin levels in both groups. There was no significant difference in melatonin secretion between the groups. The effect of fluoxetine differs from tricyclics and fluvoxamine, both of which increase melatonin.

The results confirm our previous findings of a decreased 24-h production of melatonin (p < .05; two-way ANOVA with repeated measures) and of an increased circadian secretion of cortisol (p < .01) in OCD patients with respect to matched controls, and show, for the first time, that these hormonal alterations do not significantly change after 2 months of fluoxetine administration, in spite of a good clinical improvement.

Sodium

Summary: Antidepressant-induced hyponatremia in older adults is fairly common. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, serotonin/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, and mirtazapine were implicated in the majority of the case reports and clinical studies evaluating older adults. Bupropion, trazodone, and tricyclic antidepressants were implicated less often in the same literature.Given its unique mechanism of action, bupropion may be the most appropriate antidepressant for older adults at risk for antidepressant-induced hyponatremia.

Antidepressant-induced hyponatremia in older adults is fairly common. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, serotonin/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, and mirtazapine were implicated in the majority of the case reports and clinical studies evaluating older adults. Bupropion, trazodone, and tricyclic antidepressants were implicated less often in the same literature.Given its unique mechanism of action, bupropion may be the most appropriate antidepressant for older adults at risk for antidepressant-induced hyponatremia.

Practitioners should be on the alert for this potentially life-threatening adverse event, especially in older adults with other risk factors for developing hyponatremia.

Elderly people may be at increased risk for hyponatremia associated with SSRI use. Physicians caring for elderly patients should be aware of this potentially serious but reversible adverse effect. Further research is required to determine the incidence of this adverse effect, the relative risk of hyponatremia and SIADH in different age groups and the risk associated with different SSRI drugs.

We report three cases of severe hyponatraemia, seen in the past 12 months, associated with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors fluoxetine and sertraline. Hyponatraemia has been reported as a rare adverse effect of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors.

These data suggest that antidepressant treatment is associated with hyponatraemia affecting a subgroup of individuals only. Generalised linear modelling showed that the risk of hyponatraemia increases with increased age, female gender, and particularly the antidepressant agents sertraline and escitalopram. The findings are of clinical significance as they demonstrate that hyponatraemia can occur rapidly with antidepressants, and SSRI/SNRI medications induce more rapid changes. They support the use of electrolyte monitoring early in antidepressant treatment in patients receiving antidepressants.

The findings are of clinical significance as they demonstrate that hyponatraemia can occur rapidly with antidepressants, and SSRI/SNRI medications induce more rapid changes. They support the use of electrolyte monitoring early in antidepressant treatment in patients receiving antidepressants.

In elderly patients, the prevalence of hyponatremia as adverse reaction to all types of antidepressants was 9%. Patients with previous hyponatremia, weight <60 kg, and psychosis were at risk. Beside SIADH, the nephrogenic syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis, in which ADH secretion was normal, is postulated as an underlying mechanism. This has consequences for treatment of antidepressant-induced hyponatremia with vasopressin receptor antagonists.

Hyponatremia is a potentially dangerous side effect of antidepressants and is not exclusive to SSRIs. Current evidence suggests a relatively higher risk of hyponatremia with SSRIs and venlafaxine, especially when combined with patient risk factors, warranting clinicians to be aware of this complication. The risks associated with mirtazapine are moderate, supporting this antidepressant as an alternative treatment for patients with (an increased risk of) hyponatremia.

Approximately 1 in 200 elderly people treated per year with fluoxetine or paroxetine developed complicating hyponatraemia. Low body weight was a particular risk factor. Most cases occurred within 3 weeks of treatment.

Dermatological reactions, fatigue, hyponatraemia and cough were more common in women, whereas dyskinesias/akathisia and aggression more often were seen in men. The median SSRI dosages were above average in patients experiencing seizures, hypomania/mania, personality changes, malaise, bodyweight gain, gynaecomastia and hyperprolactinaemia/galactorrhoea. Severe symptoms, such as seizures, hyponatraemia and the serotonin syndrome, were rarely reported.

These results indicate that, among patients with MDD, SSRIs treatment may be associated with decreased serum sodium levels, and the elderly patients are at greater risk for hyponatremia. Further prospective studies would help clarify the relative risks of hyponatremia among various antidepressants.

Using fluoxetine can decrease serum sodium level, which is more frequent, more severe, and more clinically manifested in older than younger patients. Monitoring serum sodium level is recommended in early weeks of fluoxetine therapy especially for patients older than 55 years of age.

Approximately 1 in 200 elderly people treated per year with fluoxetine or paroxetine developed complicating hyponatraemia. Low body weight was a particular risk factor. Most cases occurred within 3 weeks of treatment.

Hyponatraemia may be a relatively common early asymptomatic side effect of SSRIs, especially in older women. Serum sodium should be measured before commencing an SSRI and monitored during the first month. Any patient who exhibits symptoms of hyponatraemia, or whose depression apparently worsens, while on an SSRI must have their serum sodium measured. Discontinuation of the SSRI may be avoidable if serum sodium levels can be closely monitored.

Use of a second-generation antidepressant in routine care by older adults is associated with an approximate 5-fold increase in 30-day risk for hospitalization with hyponatremia compared to nonuse. However, the absolute increase in 30-day incidence is low.

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